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  • Reconstructed volume of a cross-section of the active layer of a completed P3HT/ZnO device. S.D. Oosterhout, M.M. Wienk, S.S. van Bavel, R. Thiedmann, L.J.A. Koster,J. Gilot, J. Loos, V. Schmidt, R.A.J. Janssen, The effect of three-dimensional morphology on the efficiency of hybrid polymer solar cells, Nature Materials, 8(10) (2009) 818-824.
  • E.M. Pouget, P.H.H. Bomans, J.A.C.M. Goos, P.M. Frederik, G. de With, N. Sommerdijk, The Initial Stages of Template-Controlled CaCO3 Formation Revealed by CryoTEM, Science 323 [5920](2009) 1455-1458.
    For a crystallization animation please click the Science cover image on the right.
  • The image depicts the three-dimensional network of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) nanorods formed in a photoactive layer made of P3HT and a methanofullerene derivative PCBM. This network structure was reconstructed with nanometer resolution in all three dimensions by applying the technique of electron tomography. A great deal of new structural information that can never be obtained from conventional microscopy or scattering methods can be evaluated directly from the 3D volume data provided by electron tomography. The genuine three-dimensionality of the P3HT network, high crystalline order of P3HT, and favorable distribution of both P3HT and PCBM through the thickness of the photoactive layer account for high power conversion efficiency in the corresponding solar cell device. S. van Bavel, E.D. Sourty, G. de With, J. Loos, Three-dimensional nanoscale organisation of bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells, Nano Let. 9 [2](2009) 507-513.
    For an animation please click the Nanoletter cover image on the right.
  • HAADF-STEM image at CL  300 mm with over a larger field of view showing the presence of a network interlinking the PCBM-rich domains. E. Sourty, S. van Bavel, K. Lu, R. Guerra, G. Bar, J. Loos, High-Angle Annular Dark Field (HAADF) Scanning Transmission Electron Miscroscopy (STEM) on carbon-based functional polymer systems, Microscopy and Microanalysis 15 (2009) 251-258.
  • Two subsequently acquired HAADF-STEM images of the same HDPE specimen area: (a) first acquisition showing diffraction contrast of lamellae which is most clear at the position indicated by the arrow (see also inset) and (b) second acquisition showing only diffuse thickness contrast. J.Loos, E. Sourty, K. Lu, G. de With, S.S. van Bavel, Imaging polymer systems with High-Angle Annular Dark Field Scanning Transmission Electron Miscroscopy (HAADF-STEM) , Macromolecules 42 (2009) 2581-2586.
  • Figure 1. (a, b, d, e) AFM and (c, f) TEM images of the active layer of 1:4 (w/w) MDMO-PPV:PBCM BHJ solar cells spin-cast from different solvents at different speeds: (a) chlorobenzene, 1500 rpm; (b) chlorobenzene, 800 rpm; (c) chlorobenzene, 1500 rpm; (d) toluene, 1500 rpm; (e) toluene, 800 rpm; (f) toluene, 1500 rpm. Scales: (a, b) 0.5 × 0.5 µm, z scale 5 nm; (d, e) 3 × 3 µm, z scale 150 nm.
K. Maturovà, S.S. van Bavel, M.M. Wienk, R.A.J. Janssen and M. Kemerink, Morphological Device Model for Organic Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells, Nano Letters 9 [8] (2009) 3032-3037.
  • Transmission electron micrograph and electron diffractogram
for the 1:1 weight ratio P3HT:4NDIS blend layer spin-coated from
CHCl3. This sample is representative for the other P3HT:4NDIS and
P3HT:2NDIS blends.W. Grzegorczyk, G. Palaniswamy, T. Savenije, S. van Bavel, J. Loos, E. Sudhölter, L. Siebbeles, H. Zuilhof, Photoconductance of bulk heterojunctions with tunable nanomorphology consisting of P3HT and naphthalene diimide siloxane oligomers, The Journal of Physical Chemistry C 113 (2009) 7863-7869.
  • Outcome of electron tomography applied to the PF10TBT/PCBM films (with high molecular weight PF10TBT-polymer): S. van Bavel, E.D. Sourty, G. de With, J. Loos, Three-dimensional nanoscale organisation of polymer solar cells, Journal of Materials Chemistry 19 [30](2009) 5388-5393.


  • B.P. Pichon, P.H.H. Bomans, P.M. Frederik, N.A.J.M. Sommerdijk, A quasi-time-resolved CryoTEM study of the nucleation of CaCO3 under Langmuir monolayers, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130 (2008) 4034-4040.
  • J. Loos, E. Sourty, S. van Bavel, K. Lu, Advanced transmission electron microscopy for functional polymer systems, Microscopy and Microanalysis: the official journal of Microscopy Society of America, Microbeam Analysis Society, Microscopical Society of Canada 14 Suppl 2 (2008) 692-693.
  • K. Lu, N. Grossiord, C.E. Koning, H.E. Mitler, B. van Mele, J. Loos, Carbon nanotube (CNT) / Isotactic polypropylene composites prepared by latex technology: Morphology analysis of CNT-induced nucleation, Macromolecules 41 [21] (2008) 8081-8085.
  • TEM images of rod-shaped and branched CdTe/CdS NCs after shell growth. P.T.K. Chin, J.W. Stouwdam, S.S. van Bavel, R.A.J. Janssen, Cluster synthesis of branced CdTe nanocrystals for use in light-emitting diodes,Nanotechnology 19 (2008) 205602-10.
  • D. Veldman, O Lpek, S.C.J. Meskers, J. Sweelssen, M.M. Koetse, S.C. Veenstra, J.M. Kroon, S.S. van Bavel, J. Loos, R.A.J. Janssen, Compositional and electric field dependence of the dissociation of charge transfer excitons in alternating polyfluorene copolymer/fullerene blends, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130 [24] (2008) 7721-7735.
  • A.L. Parry, P.H.H. Bomans, S.J. Holder, N.A.J.M. Sommerdijk, S.C.G. Biagini, Cryo-Electron Tomography reveals Confined Complex Morphologies from Tripeptide-containing Amphiphilic Double Comb Diblock Copolymers, Angew Chem. Int Ed. 47 (2008) 8859-8862.
  • J. van Herrikhuyzen, G. Portable, J.C. Gielen, P.C.M. Christianen, N.A.J.M. Sommerdijk, S.C.J. Meskers, A.P.H.J. Schenning, Disk micelles from amphiphilic Janus gold nanoparticles, Chem.Communications (2008) 697-699.
  • L. Lacerda, A. Soundararajan, R. Singh, G. Pastorin, K.T. Al-Jamal, J. Turton, P. Frederik, M.A. Herrero, S. Li. A. Bao, D. Emfietzoglou, S. Mather, W.T. Phillips, M. Prato, A. Bianco, B. Goins, K. Kostarelos, Dynamic imaging of functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotube systemic circulation and urinary excretion, Advanced Materials 20 (2008) 225-230.
  • M.R.J. Vos, M. Breurken, P.E. L. G. Leclère, P.H.H. Bomans, F. de Haas, P.M. Frederik, J.A. Jansen, R.J.M. Nolte, and N.A.J.M. Sommerdijk, Electron Tomography Shows Molecular Anchoring Within a Layer-by-Layer Film, J. Am. Chem. Soc. Communication 130 (2008) 12608 - 12609.
  • W.T. Al-Jamal, K.T. Al-Jamal, P.H.H..Bomans, P.M. Frederik, K. Kostarelos, Functionalized-quantum-dot-liposome hybrids as multimodal nanoparticles for cancer, Small. 4 [9] (2008) 1406-1415.
  • N. Grossiord, J. Loos, L. van Laake, M. Maugey, C. Zakri, C.E. Koning, J.A. Hart, High-conductivity polymer nanocomposites obtained by tailoring the characteristics of carbon naotube fillers, Advance Functional Materials 19 [20] (2008) 3226-3234.
  • W.T. Al-Jamal, K.T. Al-Jamal, B. Tian, L. Lacerda, P.H. Bomans, P.M. Frederik, K. Kostarelos, Lipid-quantum dot bilayer vesicles enhance tumor cell uptake and retention in vitro and in vito, ACS NANO 2 [3] (2008) 408-418.
  • S.W. van den Borne, S. Isobe, J.W. Verjans, A. Petrov, D. Lovhaug, P. Li, H.R. Zandbergen, Y. Ni, P.M. Frederik, J. Zhou, B. Arbo, A. Rogstad, A. Cuthbertson, S. Chettibi, C. Reutelingsperger, W.M. Blankesteijn, J.F. Smit, M.J. Daemen, F. Zannad, M.A. Vannan, N. Narula, B. Pitt, L. Hofstra, J. Narula, Molecular imaging of interstitial alterations in remodeling myocardium after myocardial infarction, J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008 Dec 9;52(24):2017-28.
  • J. Loos, S. van Bavel, X. Yang, Morphology of heterojunction solar cells, Organic Photovoltaics, Eds: C. Brabec, V. Dyakonov, U. Scherf, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Book Chapter ISBN:978-3-527-31675-5 (2008) 299-326.
  • C.L. Gonzalez, C.W.M. Bastiaansen, J. LUb, J. Loos, K. Lu, H.J. Wondergem, D.J. Broer, Nanoporous membranes of hydrogen-bridged smectic networks with nanometer tranverse pore dimensions, Advanced Materials 20 (2008) 1246-1252.
  • R.H. Marsden, A.V. Korobko, E.N.M. van Leeuwen, E. M. Pouget, S.J. Veen, N.A.J.M. Sommerdijk, A. Kros, Noncovalent Triblock Copolymers Based on a Coiled-Coil Peptide Motif, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130 (2008) 9386-9393.
  • N. Grossiord, P.J.J. Kivit, J. Loos, J. Meuldijk, A.V. Kyrylyuk, P. van der Schoot, C.E. Koning, On the influence of the processing conditions on the performance of electrically conductive carbon nanotube/polymer nanocomposites, Polymer 49 (2008) 2866-2872.
  • TEM micrographs and ED patterns (inserts) of annealed pDA2T:PCBM. W.J. Grzegorczyk, T.J. Savenije, M. Heeney, S. Tierney, I. McCulloch, S.S. van Bavel, L.D.A. Laurens, Relationschip between film morphology, optical, and conductive properties of poly(thienothiophene): [6,6]-phenyl C-61-butyric acid methyl ester bulk heterojunctions, Journal of Physical Chemistry C 112 (2008) 15973-15979.
  • DNA-monolayer complex M.R.J. Vos, P.H.H. Bomans, P.M. Frederik, N.A.J.M. Sommerdijk, The development of a glove-box/Vitrobot combination: Air-water interface events visualized by cryo-TEM, Ultramicroscopy 108 (2008) 1478-1483.
  • E. Wisse, F. Jacobs, B. Topal, P. Frederik, B. de Geest, The size of endothelial fenestrae in human liver sinusoids: implications for hepatocyte-directed gene transfer, Gene Ther. 15 [17] (2008) 1193-1199.
  • F. Braet, J. Riches, W. Geerts, K.A. Jahn, E. Wisse, P. Frederik, Three-dimensional organization of fenestrae labyrinths in liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, Liver Int. Jul 23 (2008)
  • E. Sourty, B. Freitag, D. Wall, D. Tang, K. Lu, J. Loos, Tomographic imaging ultra-thick specimens with nanometer resolution, Microscopy and Microanalysis: the official journal of Microscopy Society of America, Microbeam Analysis Society, Microscopical Society of Canada 14 Suppl 2 (2008) 1056-1057.


  • M. Comellas-Aragones, H. Engelkamp, V.I. Claessen, N.A.J.M. Sommerdijk, A.E. Rowan, P.C.M. Christianen, J.C. Maan, B.J.M. Verduin, J.J.L.M. Cornelissen, R.J.M. Nolte, A virus-based single-enzyme nanoreactor, Nature Nanotechnology 2 (2007) 635-639.
  • J. Yu, K. Lu, E. Sourty, N. Grossiord, C.E. Koning, J. Loos, Characterization of conductive multiwall carbon nanotube/polystyrene composites prepared by latex technolgy, Carbon 45 (2007) 2897-2903.
  • N. Grossiord, J. Loos, J. Meuldijk, O. Regev, H.E. Miltner, B. van Mele, C.E. Koning, Conductive carbon-nanotube/polymer composites: Spectroscopic monitoring of the exfolation process in water, Composites Science and Technology 67 (2007) 778-782.
  • F. Braet, E. Wisse, P. Bomans, P. Frederik, W. Geerts, A. Koster, L. Soon, S. Ringer, Contribution of high-resolution correlative imaging techniques in the study of the live sieve in three-dimensions, Microscopy Research and Technique 70 [3] (2007) 230-242.
  • J. Yu, N. Grossiord, C.E. Koning, J. Loos, Controlling the dispersion of multi-wall nanotubes in aqueous surfactant solution, Carbon 45 (2007) 618-623.
  • P.T.K. Chin, Mello Donega, S.S. van Bavel, S.C.J. Meskers, N.A.J.M. Sommerdijk, R.A.J. Janssen, Highly luminescent CdTe/CdSe colloidal heteronanocrystals with temperature-dependent emission color, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129 [48] (2007) 14880-14886.
  • M.R. Vos, P.H.H. Bomans, F. de Haas, P.M. Frederik, J.A. Jansen, R.J.M. Nolte, N.A.J.M. Sommerdijk, Insights in the organization of DNA-Surfactant Monolayers using cryo-electron tomography, J.Am.Chem.Soc. 129 (2007) 11894-11895.
  • S.C. Veenstra, J. Loos, J.M. Kroon, Nanoscale structure of solar cells based on pure conjugated polymer blends, Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 15 (2007) 727-740.
  • N. Grossiord, H.E. Mitler, J. Loos, J. Meuldijk, B. van Mele, C.E. Koning, On the crucial role of wetting in the preparation of conductive polystyrene-carbon nanotube composites, Chemistry of Materials 19 (2007) 3787-3792.
  • J. Loos, N. Grossiord, C.E. Koning, O. Regev, On the fate of carbon nanotubes: Morphological characterisations, Composites Science and Technology 67 (2007) 783-788.
  • L. Prinzen, R.J.H.M. Miserus, A. Dirksen, T.M. Hackeng, N. Deckers, N.J. Bitsch, R.T.A. Megens, K. Douma, J.W. Heemskerk, M.E. Kooi, P.M. Frederik, D.W. Slaaf, M.A.M.J. van Zandvoort, C.P.M. Reutelingsperger, Optical and magnetic resonance imaging of cell death and platelet activation using annexin A5-functionalized quantum dots, Nano Letters 7 [1] (2007) 93-100.
  • P. Saveyn, J. Cocquyt, P. Bomans, P. Frederik, M. de Cuyper, P. van der Meeren, Osmotically induced morphological changes of extruded dioctadecyldimethylammonium chloride (DODAC) dispersions, Langmuir 23 (2007) 4775-4781.
  • P.M. Martinez, M. Losen, H. Duimel, P. Frederik, F. Spaans, P. Molenaar, A. Vincent, M.H. de Baets, Overexpression of rapsyn in rat muscle increases acetylcholine receptor levels in chronic experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis, The American Journal of Pathology 170 [2] (2007) 644-657.
  • E.G. Vrieling, Q. Sun, M. Tian, P.J. Kooyman, W.W.C. Gieskes, R.A. van Santen, N.A.J.M. Sommerdijk, Salinity-dependent diatom biosilification implies an important role of external ionic strength, PNAS 104 [25] (2007) 10441-10446.
  • J. van Herrikhuyzen, S.J. George, M.R.J. Vos, N.A.J.M. Sommerdijk, A. Ajayaghosh, S.C.J. Meskers, A.P.H.J. Schenning, Self-assembled hybrid oligo(p-phenylenevinylene)-gold nanoparticles tapes, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 46 (2007) 1825-1828.
  • J. Snoeys, J. Lievens, E. Wisse, F. Jacobs, H. Duimel, D. Collen, P. Frederik, B. de Geest, Species differences in transgene DNA uptake in hepatocytes after adenoviral transfer correlate with the size of endothelial fenestrae, Gene Therapy 14 (2007) 604-612.
  • T.M. Hermans, M.A.C. Broeren, N. Gomopoulos, A.F. Smeijers, B. Mezari, E.N.M. van Leeuwen, M.R.J. Vos, P.C.M.M. Magusin, P.A.J. Hibers, M.H.P. van Genderen, N.A.J.M. Sommerdijk, G. Fytas, E.W. Meijer, Stepwise noncovalent synthesis leading to dendrimer-based assemblies in water, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129 (2007) 15631-15638.
  • D.C. Popescu, M.M.J. Smulders, B.P. Pichon, N. Chebotareva, S-Y. Kwak, O.L.J. van Asselen, R.P. Sijbesma, E. DiMasi, N.A.J.M. Sommerdijk, Template adaptability is key in the oriented crystallization of CaCO3, J.Am.Chem.Soc. 129 (2007) 14058-14067.
  • X. Yang, J. Loos, Towards high-performance polymer solar cells: The importance of morphology control, Macromolecules 40 (2007) 1353-1362.


  • M.J. Boerakker, N.E. Botterhuis, P.H.H. Bomans, P.M. Frederik, E.M. Meijer, R.J.M. Nolte, N.A.J.M. Sommerdijk, Aggregation behavior of giant amphiphiles prepared by cofactor reconstitution, Chemistry - a European Journal 12 (2006) 6071-6080.
  • K. Kunna, C. Müller, J. Loos, D. Vogt, Aqueous-phase hydroformylation of 1-octene; styrene latices as phase-transfer agents, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 45 (2006) 1-4.
  • W.R. Small, C.D. Walton, J. Loos, M. in het Panhuis, Carbon nanotube network formation from evaporating sessile drops, J. Phys. Chem. B 110 (2006) 13029-13036.
  • E. Lutgens, S.P. Lutgens, B.C. Faber, S. Heeneman, M.M. Gijbels, M.P. de Winter, P.M. Frederik, I. van der Made, A. Dougherty, A.M. Sijbers, A. Fisher, C.J. Long, P. Saftig, D. Black, M.J. Daemen, K.B. Cleutjens, Disruption of the cathepsin K gene reduces atherosclerosis progression and induces plaque fibrosis but accelerates macrophage foam cell formation, Circulation 113 [1] (2006) 98-107.
  • I.K. Voets, A. de Keizer, P. de Waard, P.M. Frederik, P.H.H. Bomans, H. Schmalz, A. Walther. S.M. King, F.A. Leermakers, M.A. Cohen Stuart, Double-faced micelles from water-soluble polymers, Angewandte Chemie (Int. Ed. Engl) 145 [40] 2006 6673-6676.
  • M. M. Koetse, J. Sweelssen, K.T. Hoekerd, H.F.M. Schoo, S.C. Veenstra, J.M. Kroon, X. Yang, J. Loos, Efficient polymer:polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells, Applied Physics Letters 88 (2006) 083504.
  • S. Piperoudi, D. Fatouros, P.V. Ioannou, P.M. Frederik, S.G. Antimisiaris, Incorporation of PEG-lipids in arsonoliposomes results in formation of highly stable arsenic-containing vesicles, Chemistry and Physics of Lipids 139 [2] (2006) 96-106.
  • X. Zheng, M.S. Pimlapure, G. Weickert, J. Loos, Influence of porosity on the fragmentation of Ziegler-Natta catalyst in the early stages of propylene polymerization, e-polymers 028 (2006) 1-10.
  • X. Zheng, J. Loos, Morpohology evolution in the early stages of olefin polymerization, Macromolecular Symposia 236 (2006) 249-258.
  • H. Zhong, X. Yang, G. de With, J. Loos, Quantitative insight into morphology evolution of thin PPV/PCBM composite films upon thermal treatment, Macromolecules 39[1] (2006) 218 – 223.
  • N.G. Tahzib, F.A. Egging, P.M. Frederik, R.M. Nuijts, Recurrent intraocular inflammation after implantation of the artiflex phakic intraocular lens for the correction of high myopia, Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery, 32 [8] (2006) 1388-1391.
  • E. Klimov, W. Li, X. Yang, G.G.Hoffmann, J. Loos, Scanning near-field and confocal raman microscopic investigation of P3HT-PCBM systems for solar cell applications, Macromolecules 2006, 39(13) 4493-4496.
  • I. Korczagin, M.A. Hempenius, R.G. Fokkink, M.A. Cohen Stuart, M. Al-Hussein, P.H.H. Bomans, P.M. Frederik, G.J. Vancso,Self-assembly of poly(ferrocenyldimethylsilane-b-methyl methacrylate) block copolymers in a selective solvent, Macromolecules 39 (2006) 2306-2315.
  • M.A. Hempenius, I. Korczagin, R.G. Fokkink, M.A.C. Stuart, M. Al-Hussein, P.H.H. Bomans, P.M. Frederik, G.J. Vansco, Self-assembly of PFS-b-PMMA block copolymers in a selective solvent, Abstr. Pap. Am. Chem. S 231: -256-POLY MAR 26 2006.
  • N. Grossiord, J. Loos, O. Regev, C.E. Koning, Toolbox for dispersing carbon nanotubes into polymers to get conductive nanocomposites, Chemistry of Materials 18 (2006) 1089-1099.


  • X. Yang, A. Alexeev, M.A.J. Michels, J. Loos, Effect of spatial confinement on the morphology evolution of thin poly(p-phenylene vinylene)/methanofullerene composite films, Macromolecules 38 [10] (2005) 4289-4295.
  • N. Chebotareva, P.H.H. Bomans, P.M. Frederik, N.A.J.M. Sommerdijk, R.P. Sijbesma, Morphological control and molecular recognition by bis-urea hydrogen bonding in micelles of amphiphilic tri-block copolymers,Chemical Communications 39 (2005) 4967-4969.
  • J. Loos, X. Yang, M. M. Koetse, J. Sweelssen, H.F.M. Schoo, S.C. Veenstra, W. Grogger, G. Kothleitner, F. Hofer, Morphology determination of functional MDMO-PPV/PCNEPV blends as used for all-polymer solar cells, Journal of Applied Polymer Science 97 (2005) 1001-1007.
  • X. Yang, J. Loos, S.C. Veenstra, W.J.H. Verhees, M.M. Wienk, J.M. Kroon, M.A.J. Michels, R. A.J. Janssen, Nanoscale morphology of high-performance polymer solar cells, Nano Lett. 5 [4] (2005) 579-583.
  • P.M. Frederik, N.A.J.M. Sommerdijk, Spatial and temporal resolution in cryo-electron microscopy - a scope for nano-chemistry, Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science 10 (2005) 245-249.
  • N.Grossiord, J. Loos, C.E. Koning, Strategies for dispersing carbon nanotubes in highly viscous polymers , J. Mat. Chem. 15 [24] (2005) 2349-2352 (Cover page paper and Highlight Article).
  • P.Ganesan, X. N. Yang, J. Loos, T.J. Savenije, R.D. Abellon, H. Zuilhof, E.J.R.  Sudhoelter, Tetrahedral n-Type Materials: Efficient Quenching of the Excitation of p-Type Polymers in Amorphous Films J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 14530-14531.
  • M.R.J. Vos, G. Etxebarria Jardí, A. Llanes Pallas, M. Breuken, O.L.J. van Assselen, P.H.H. Bomans, P.E.L.G. Leclère, P.M. Frederik, R.J.M. Nolte, N.A.J.M. Sommerdijk, The bis-urea motif as a tool to functionalize self-assembled nanoribbons, Journal of the American Chemical Society 127 (2005) 16768.
  • T.J. Savenije, J.E. Kroeze, X. Yang, J. Loos, The effect of thermal treatments on the morphology and charge carrier dynamics in a PCBM-P3HT bulk heterojunction, Adv. Func. Mater. 15 (2005) 1260-1266.
  • C. Sánchez, M.J. Escuti, C. van Heesch, C.W.M. Bastiaansen, D.J. Broer, J. Loos, R. Nussbaumer, TiO2 nanoparticle-photopolymer composites for volume holographic recording, Adv. Func. Mater. 15 (2005) 1623-1629 (Cover page paper).
  • J.Loos, A. Alexeev, N. Grossiord, C.E. Koning, O. Regev, Visualization of single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) networks in conductive polystyrene nanocomposites by charge contrast imaging, Ultramicroscopy 104 [2] (2005) 160-167.